Arthur Samuel was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence. He coined the term "machine learning" in 1959. The Samuel Checkers-playing Program appears to be the world's first self-learning program, and as such a very early demonstration of the fundamental concept of artificial intelligence (AI).
Samuel graduated from College of Emporia in Kansas in 1923. He received a master's degree in Electrical Engineering from MIT, and taught for two years as instructor. Samuel went to IBM where he would conceive and carry out his most successful work. At IBM he made the first checkers program on IBM's first commercial computer, the IBM 701. The program was a sensational demonstration of the advances in both hardware and skilled programming.